Chapter 11: Diagramming Verbals

Verbals are words that are formed from verbs but do not act as verbs.

There are three types:

1. Gerunds end with ing and act like nouns.

Running is my favorite sport.

2. Participles end in ing, d, t, or n, and they act as adjectives.

I hear running water.

3. Infinitives are to + a verb, and they act as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs.

I love to run.

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11.0 Diagramming Gerunds

Remember, these verbals end with ing and act like nouns.

Directions: Diagram the following sentences. Place the gerund on a line that is drawn like a step. The ing part of the gerund goes on the bottom part of the step, and the rest goes on the top part of the step.

With a forked line, connect the step to the rest of the sentence wherever it should go. (Since gerunds are nouns, they can be the subject, direct object, object of the preposition, or predicate noun.)

In the example sentence, the gerund is acting as the subject.

Example: Running is fun.
gerund sentence diagram

Gerunds can also take complements and modifiers. Gerunds plus their complements and/or modifiers are called gerund phrases.

Example: Running marathons is fun.

gerund sentence diagram

1. My sister and I enjoy laughing.

2. Wow! Riding my bike is really fun.

3. Jumping rope for twenty minutes is good for your heart.

4. My favorite game is throwing frisbees to my dog.

5. I dream of diving to the bottom of the ocean.

11.1 Diagramming Participles

Remember, these verbals end in ing, d, t, or n, and act as adjectives.

Directions: Diagram the following sentences. Place the participles on a curved line below the word that it modifies.


Example: The filtered water tastes delicious.

Participles can also take modifiers. Participles plus their complements and/or modifiers are called participial phrases.

Example: Throwing rocks across the water, my friend smiled.
1. Have you seen my biking shorts?

2. Yuck! I hate burned toast.

3. I threw the ball to the girl running across the field.

4. The plants growing near the window need water.

5. The filtered water tastes delicious.

11.2 Diagramming Infinitives

Remember, these verbals are formed from the words to + a verb, and they can act as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs.

The infinitive in the example sentences is acting as a noun (the direct object).

Directions: Diagram the following sentences. Place the word to on an angled line, and write the verb on a horizontal line coming off of the angled line.

With a forked line, connect this to the rest of the sentence wherever it should go. (Infinitives can be nouns, adjectives, or adverbs.)
Example: I want to win.

Infinitives can also take complements and modifiers. Infinitives plus their complements and/or modifiers are called infinitive phrases.

Example: I want to win the game.
1. My dog loves to bark at cars.

2. To master a new skill takes patience and persistence.

3. Jessica entered the race to win.

4. My goal is to live happily!

5. The puppies barked to get my attention.

Check Your Answers

11.0 Diagramming Gerunds

gerunds sentence diagram

4. This answer is only available in the book.

5. This answer is only available in the book.

11.1 Diagramming Participles

adjective clause sentence diagram

4. This answer is only available in the book.

5. This answer is only available in the book.

11.2 Diagramming Infinitives

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