Elizabeth O'Brien

Hello! I'm Elizabeth O'Brien, and my goal is to get you jazzed about grammar. 

Direct Address (Vocative Case)

Nouns of direct address name the person or thing you are speaking or writing to. 

Mom, this turkey is amazing!

Caroline, we won the game.

Let's eat, Grandpa.

If the name noun of direct address sounds funny to you, take it apart and you'll see how it makes sense. 

Nouns name people, places, things, or ideas, so it makes sense that people's names are nouns. 

Direct address means that you are directly addressing someone or something. When you address a letter, you put a person's name on it. Using one of these nouns is like addressing a sentence to someone or something. 

Psst! You may also know these as nouns written in the vocative case

Not the Subject

At first, you might think that these are the subjects of sentences. They usually come at the beginning of sentences, and they're nouns. Subjects often begin sentences, and they're often nouns. 

However, these nouns will never be subjects.  

Nouns of direct address, just like interjections, are not grammatically related to the rest of the sentence.  

They are even diagrammed just as interjections are diagrammed. They sit on a line floating above the rest of the sentence. I'll show you some examples so that you can see for yourself. 

Diagramming Direct Address

Sentence diagrams are pictures of sentences.

direct address sentence diagram

Caroline, we won the game!

Diagram these nouns on lines floating above the rest of the sentence.

direct address sentence diagram

Mom, this turkey is amazing.


Commas save lives!

It's important to set these nouns apart from the rest of the sentence with commas. 

As you can see, these two sentences have very different meanings!

Let's eat Grandpa!

Let's eat, Grandpa!

The comma before Grandpa in the second sentence lets us know that it's a noun of direct address.

Without the comma, Grandpa becomes the direct object of the verb eat. That's not good! 

If the noun of direct address comes at the beginning of the sentence, put a comma after it. 

Mom, this turkey is amazing!

If it comes at the end of the sentence, put a comma before it. 

This turkey is amazing, Mom!

If it comes in the middle of the sentence, put commas around it.

This turkey, Mom, is amazing!

Elizabeth O'Brien from Grammar Revolution

If you don't want to teach or learn grammar by yourself, click here to see how I can help you.

I practiced diagramming a few sentences from your Stay Smart books, and I felt like I was "getting it." I felt so encouraged that I dug up my old college composition text books and started reading. My mind was buried with "Ahas." I was so energized! Everything is making sense now. 

- Al, Adult Learner

If you want to teach or learn grammar the easy way, follow our step-by-step program that clearly lays everything out and allows you to move at your own pace. The Get Smart Grammar Program is presented in a logical sequence, so it's not an overwhelming mishmash of information. Just watch the videos and complete your assignments. Before you know it, you'll be a grammar and sentence diagramming pro!

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Elizabeth O'Brien

Elizabeth O'Brien is the creator of Grammar Revolution.

Her lessons are guaranteed to give you more confidence in your communication skills and make you smile. :)